Introduction to CCTV Installation

Introduction to CCTV Installation

 

  • Cube Introduction to CCTV (Closed Circuit Television)
  • By
  • Ferdinand Joseph
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • History

–Closed Circuit Television is a closed network of security surveillance systems.

–The first CCTV system was used by Nazi Germany to observe V-rockets in 1942. This system was not recording and it was only used for monitoring.

–In 1968, Olean, New York was the first city to use CCTV in an effort to fight crime.

  • CCTV is used in various applications.

–Crime prevention.

–Industrial processes.

–Traffic monitoring.

–Transport safety.

–Sporting events.

–Monitoring employees.

–Use in schools

–Criminal use

  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?

–Below are some of the components of a CCTV system.

  1. Cameras
  2. Recorders
  3. Display
  4. Cables
  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?

–Cameras

  • The camera is the main component of a security surveillance system. The security cameras are manufactured to work continuously day and night.
  • CCTV cameras come in different shapes and types. It is hard to classify them into different categories.

 

  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?

–Cameras

  • By using video signal types, you can classify CCTV cameras into two main categories.
  • –Analogue
  • –Digital

 

  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?

–Analogue CCTV camera

  • The cameras that transmit video signals in the form of analogue signals are known as analogue cameras.
  • Analogue cameras use either NTSC (National Television System Committee) or PAL (Phase Alternating Line).
  • Analogue signals are limited to 0.3 megapixels.
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?

–Analogue CCTV camera

  • Analogue cameras can use coaxial or UTP (Universally Twisted Pairs) to transmit video signals.
  • Video signals are stored in a digital video recorder.
  • Analogue cameras are fitted with CCD (charge-coupled device) or CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) sensors.
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?
–Digital or IP CCTV camera
  • Digital cameras are also known as IP cameras.
  • IP or Internet Protocol cameras are capable of transmitting video in the form of data.
  • IP cameras are like mini digital video recorders.
  • IP cameras are normally connected to a NVR (Network video recorder)
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?
–Digital CCTV camera
  • The first IP camera was made by Axis in 1996.
  • IP cameras send and receive data via a computer network.
  • Some IP cameras have inbuilt storage, video footage can be stored using an SD card.
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • What are the differences between IP and Analogue cameras?
  • The primary difference between IP and analogue cameras is the way the video signals are transmitted.
  • Analogue signals can vary in frequency, amplitude, or both.
  • Digital signals travel as data in binary form.
  • IP cameras encode the signals before transmission.
  • Analogue cameras transmit signals to a recorder and the recorder encodes the signals.
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • What are the differences between IP and Analogue cameras?
  • IP cameras give better resolution. There are IP cameras which can deliver 5K resolution.
  • Most analogue cameras are capable of delivering 700 TVL (Television lines). However, after being encoded by a digital video recorder, analogue cameras can only provide D1 resolution.
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • What are the differences between IP and Analogue cameras?

D1 resolution which is 720×480 pixels(NTSC) or 720×576pixels (PAL). The maximum pixels from a D1 resolution is 414,720 pixels or 0.4 megapixels.

On the other hand, IP cameras are capable of giving a fantastic resolution.

A standard IP camera with 1.0 megapixel gives 1280×720 pixels or 921,600 pixels.

(Axis’ highest camera resolution is 5.2 megapixels 2560×2048)

  • What are the differences between IP and Analogue cameras?

VGA resolution

VGA (Video Graphic Array) is the resolution of PCs, this was developed by IBM. Despite the fact a high-resolution camera is installed, if a computer monitor is used to display those images, the maximum resolution that your monitor gives is 640×480 which is 0.3 megapixels.

This is why megapixel cameras are better off connecting to a TV or CCTV monitors.

If you connect a 1.0-megapixel camera to a display, ideally you will require at least half HD or 720p TV (1280×720)

  • What are the differences between IP and Analogue cameras?

CCTV camera resolution

In the real world, you will still see a difference in analogue cameras and full HD IP cameras, even you have only used a standard PC monitor.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • What is the use of a lens in a CCTV camera?

–A security camera lens determines the viewing area.

–The field of view should be established, and the height and width of the scene should be decided.

–The image you get from the camera is the proportion of the camera’s sensor, you can only take height or width.

–For example, let’s say you want to see a person from a distance of 10 metres.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • What is the use of a lens in a CCTV camera?

–First of all, you need to establish the required scene height or width, also known as the field of view.

–In this case, it will be more appropriate to use height.

–A man is roughly 6 feet tall, therefore you can use 2m as the height.

–The width of the scene will determine the proportion of the lens used.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens

  • CCTV lens calculation formula

 

Focal Point mm = Chipset width or height x distance / Required scene width or height

Example 1 : Man’s height = 2m, distance = 10m, sensor side 1/3”

Sensor size in mm = 1/3” Height = 3.2mm, Width = 4.8mm

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • By using CCTV lenses, CCTV cameras can be classified into four different categories.

–Pre-fixed lens cameras

»These types of cameras have a lens inbuilt into them.

–Varifocal lens

»Varifocal cameras come with the variance in lens size.

»E.g. 2.8 mm  – 12.00 mm

–Box cameras

»Box cameras are fully customisable, different sizes of lenses can be fixed to a box camera.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV Lens
  • By using CCTV lenses, CCTV cameras can be classified into four different categories.

–PTZ

»Pan – tilt – zoom camera is fitted with a motor to control pan, tilt and zoom.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • High Definition Camera
  • High definition cameras send HD video signals through a coaxial cable.
  • The first high-definition camera was introduced by Sony HD-SDI (High definition serial digital interface).
  • There are four types of high definition cameras available on the market.

–HD-SDI (High definition serial digital interface)

–HD-TVI (High Definition transport video interface)

–HD-CVI (High definition composite video interface)

–AHD (Analogue high definition)

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • High Definition Camera
  • Advantages of a high definition camera

–HD video signals through coaxial cable

–No network knowledge required

»As HD cameras use coaxial cables and the installation is no different from a conventional analogue system, there is no need to train the existing engineers or acquire additional expertise.

–Cost effective solution

»As there is no need to change the cable, it is cost effective to upgrade a conventional analogue system to HD.

»As it requires fewer labour hours, it is possible to achieve significant savings.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • High Definition Camera
  • Advantages of a high definition camera

–Video and data can be transmitted through the same cable

»By coaxial cable, you can send video and data.

–Long cable run

»High definition cameras can transmit full colour video signals up to 500m through a coaxial cable.

–HD cameras are less expensive than IP cameras

»HD cameras are far less expensive than IP cameras, but they also give high definition video signals.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • Question time
  • What are the basic components of a CCTV system?
  • What is the maximum recording resolution an analogue camera can produce?
  • What is VGA?
  • What is CCD?
  • What is a high definition camera?
  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV tools
  • There many tools used in CCTV installation and the most common ones are:

–CCTV wire stripper

»An RG59 wire stripper is used to strip RG59 or coaxial cable.

–Side cutter

»General tool used in crimping BNC connectors.

–CCTV tester

»This tester is used to test CCTV cameras, cables, batteries and networks.

–Cable tracer

»To trace cables

–CCTV crimp

»This device is used to crimp BNC connectors

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • CCTV tools
  • Other common types of tools used in CCTV installation.

–Screwdrivers

–Power handheld drills

–Hammer drills

–PPE kit

–Ladder(s)

CCTV engineers should know basic health and safety. It is

advisable that CCTV engineers do at least a level 2 Health & Safety course and basic understanding of electrical.

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • Electrical and CCTV Installation
  • Electrical

–It is essential to understand how electric works in CCTV installation. By understanding basic electric the following can be achieved:

»Running cable correctly, compliant with IEE wiring regulation.

»Calculating voltage drop

»Deciding the cable size

»Calculating the total power required

»Calculating total backup power

»Health and safety

»

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • Electrical and CCTV Installation
  • Ohm’s law

Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. It also states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.

–V = IR

»V= voltage

»I = current

»R = resistance

  • Introduction to CCTV
  • Electrical and CCTV Installation
  • Current

–The electrical charge created by moving electrons.

  • Resistance

–How a medium can reduce the electric current, and it is measured in Ohms.

  • Voltage

–Voltage is the potential difference in energy needed for the current to flow via a conductor.